What is the difference between the UDF
and the UDR
? And what is an UFR?
And who on earth was Le Père Ubu
? Answers to these questions and plenty more on this U page of the
dictionary of France..
UBU, le père :
Ubu Roi was a play (1896) by the writer Alfred Jarry, and one of the
most founding works in the movement known as the "Theatre of the
Absurd". Ubu has become celebrated as the archetypal absurd figure, and
in particular the adjective "ubuesque"
is used to denounce absurd situations
UDF - Union pour la
a centre-right political party founded in 1978 as a party
of non-Gaullist conservative supporters of president
Giscard d'Estaing. Built out of the previous Républicains
party, the UDF remained the second force on the right of French
politics until 1995 when it foundered as members split their
loyalties between two presidential hopefuls of the time,
Chirac and Edouard Balladur. Since then, the party lost ground and
support, before eventually being wound down by its leader
Bayrou, in order to set up a new centre party, the MoDem or Mouvement
Démocratique, in 2007. See Political Parties in France
- In the time of General de Gaulle, the main conservative political
party in France; a direct ancestor of today's UMP. Founded in 1968 as
the Union pour la
Défense de la République, (a
reference to the perceived threat that the French republic had faced in
1968), it was changed to Union
des Démocrates pour la République in
1971, before changing into the Rassemblement
pour la République, RPR, in 1976.
UER - see UFR below
UFR - Unité de Formation et
The current designation of the main structural units of French
universities, formerly known as Facultés and as UER
d'Enseignement et de Recherche). Until the eudcation reforms following
the events of 1968, French universities had little in the way of
central structure, but were made up of autonomous Faculties. Les Facultés were
officially renamed UER (unités d'enseignement et de
then later UFR. However, many universities still use the word Faculté
to describe some or all of their UFR, particularly where modern UFR
correspond to old traditional university faculties, such as a Faculty
of Science or a Faculty of Arts (Faculté
des lettres). The word Faculté is rarely used
in cases where huge old faculties have been broken down into much
smaller units. See higher
education in France
UMP - Currently
(2011) the main conservative political party in France. Initially
founded as the Union
pour une Majorité Présidentielle, to
support the candidacy of Jacques chirac in the 2002 presidential
election, the name was later changed to Union pour un Mouvement Populaire.
In 2004, Nicolas Sarkozy was elected chairman of the party, a position
from which he was able to launch his successful bid for the
Parties in France
. After his successful presidential bid, Sarkozy relinquished
role as president of the UMP. Today the UMP has no president, but a
secretary general, Jean-François Copé.
- Conservative national union of students in France; smaller than the
left-wing UNEF and the moderate left FAGE, UNI has traditionally been
strongest in law and science faculties.
Union de la Gauche :
Alliance (1972 - 1977) of the main left-wing political parties, notably
the Socialists and the Communists, that led to the election in 1981 of
François Mitterrand to the presidency, and the
election of a
left-wing government, after 23 years of right-wing domination of the
universities are not at the top of the pinnacle of higher education.
This top position is taken by Grandes Ecoles
. However, French universities generally hold their own against all but
the ‘top’ universities in other countries, and are
productive, in terms of the balance between the number of graduates
produced and the level of investment.
has 82 state universities, plus 5 Catholic universities (and a large
number of private instituts, some of which award
degrees.) For more information, see article on Higher Education in
les : the A&E - accident and emergency -
units of French hospitals. Urgences can be called
out by phoning the free telephone number 15, and contacting the SAMU.
de Recouvrement des
Cotisations de Sécurité Sociale et d'Allocations
A network of autonomous public-service organisations, responsible for
collecting employer and employee health insurance and social security
- Former French international airline, since absorbed into
France. UTA was particularly involved in flights to French
overseas territories and former colonies..
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