mean? What was a DEUG ?
Is a député-maire the
deputy mayor, or something else? And where are the DOM ? Look no
further, here are the answers to these and other
questions concerning French words or names beginning with D
Photo top of page: iconic French car, the Citroen 2cv or D
Chevaux... more usually grey than red.
Danone is the
world’s leading dairy company, and is known in the
Dannon. Its principal sectors of activity are today fresh milk products
(yoghurts, desserts), baby food and mineral water. It distributes some
of France’s best known mineral waters, notably Volvic and
Evian, and is
the no. 2 worldwide in bottled mineral water. Danone became
leading food-processing group in 1973, on the merger of Gervais-Danone
and BSN. It is a CAC 40 company.
Groupe Dassault is a French industrial group consisting
mainly of armaments and aviation companies, specialised in jet
fighters, the most famous of which is the Mirage. It also owns
Socpresse, publishers of the daily Figaro
newspaper. The Dassault group is one of France's great family
companies, founded by Marcel Dassault, now run by his son Serge
du renseignement intérieur : New French
Intelligence Agency, formed in 2008 from the merging of the two former
rival intelligence agencies, the DST (Direction de la Surveillance du
Territoire) and the RG (Rensignements
Gaulle , General
under G: Gaulle, General
The pure research equivalent of the former DESS (see below), a former
prerequisite for postgraduate students wishing to embark on a doctoral
thesis. See Higher
education in France
Festival du film
américain : popular annual film festivel,
founded in 1975,
held each September in the northern coastal resort of Deauville
Conservative politician, and right hand man of General de Gaulle. First
prime minister (1959-1962) of the Fifth Republic. Debré was
, with de
Gaulle, one of the main authors of the constitution of the Fifth
"Se débrouiller" means to get by on your
is a quality admired in France, the ability to get by, even when things
are often lined up against you. It is also an ability to get through or
round administrative red-tape.
large French international chain of sprotrswear and sports
: regionalisation, decentralisation,
devolution of power from the central government to
regional and departmental authorities. France has a long legacy as a
centralised state, dating back many centuries; the centralised
structure of power has survived numerous regime changes in since the
French Revolution. It was not until the election of a Socialist
government in 1981 that any major steps were taken to reduce the
importance of Paris. The first Loi de
in 1982, transferred certain powers to the regions, and since then
further powers have been devolved, including responsibility for
(though not the recruitment of their teachers), regional public
transport services, and the management of certain social services.
Regions are now governed by elected conseils
régionaux, under the leadership of a
Président de région.
- tax return
Much administrative and civil legislation in France is passed by means
of decree, rather than being put through parliament. See politics and government.
Mayor of Paris from 2001 to 2014 .
Delanoë is a popular member of the Socialist party
Jacques - A
French catholic socialist politician, former President of the European
Commission (1985-1995). Father of the leading French socialist
politician Martine Aubry.
Delors' socialist-catholic vision of European integration was strongly
at odds with the "anglo-saxon/protestant" views of Margaret
Thatcher, and the two leaders disagreed vehemently over many issues.
: Form of protest popular with students and trade unions, though less
so than in the past.
County. Metropolitan France is
divided administratively into 96 Departments. The concept of the
Department, as a territorial subdivision, has existed since the
seventeenth century. The original list of 89 departments, numbered
alphanumericially from A to Z, was fixed in 1860.
then, seven new departments have been
added. Department 90, the Territoire de Belfort, was made from the
French-speaking part of southern Alsace in 1871,
and Departments 91 to 95, the departments of the Greater Paris
area, added in 1964. Department 20, Corsica, was
divided into two in 1976. There
are also four overseas departments, known as DOM
The capital town of a department is known as the Préfecture,
and since 2015 Department are administered by an elected Conseil
Départemental (which replaced the former Conseils
Departments are grouped
together to form larger
units, known as régions.
d'outre Mer. See
member of the French parliament, the Assemblée nationale.
député-maire is not
the mayor's deputy. This expression is used to
describe a person who occupies two representative functions, that of député
and that of mayor. See
Cumul des mandats.
Supérieures Spécialisées -
phased out in 2004, the former principal French
degree, usually obtained at the end of five years of higher education,
and equivalent to a Masters. The DESS, like its
pure research equivalent, the DEA, has now ben
replaced by the new Masters qualification.
Universitaire Général: Certificate
previously awarded for
successful completion of the first two years of university study. The
DEUG was phased out with the adoption by France of the "Bologna"
diploma structure (known in France as LMD), for which the first higher
education diploma is the Licence
(equivalent of the BA), awarded after three years of study.
Nickname, la Deudeuche.
Iconic minimalist French car, (see also
Citroën). The first models of this car were produced
but the war stopped the project. The first 2CVs went on sale
in 1949, and the last production line was closed in 1990 –
an end an incredible 41 years of production. The original 2CV, with its
spongy suspension, was designed as an affordable car for small farmers
(paysans) and workers, a car in which one could carry a basket of eggs
to market over France's poorly surfaced or unsurfaced roads, and arrive
with all the eggs intact. Over five million "Deux-Chevaux"
were produced by Citroën over the years, in France or plants
Those that remain today are collector's items.
du vide, la : A.k.a.
aride : a large swathe of land running across France from
northeast (the Meuse plain) to southwest (the central Pyrenees), via
the southern Massif Central, where, for most of the twentieth century
population was falling and the economy in decline, due to rural exodus.
Since the start of the twenty-first century, the population in this
area, covering some twenty departments, has at last begun to increase
again, as a result of longer life-expectancy and of repopulation by
emigrants from the cities and other parts of Europe.
A small glass of liqueur or brandy traditionally drunk at the end of a
good meal, particularly on a festive occasion. Popularly known as a
pousse-café. The tradition is perhaps still strongest in
where there are still people, known as bouilleurs de cru,
who have the right to produce their own spirits from their own fruit
from apples in Normandy, prune from plums or kirsch
from cherries in eastern France, and gnole or goutte
(from grapes) in the south. However, consumption of digestifs
has fallen heavily in recent years, notably on account of drink-drive
de Cabinet :
the senior civil servant who, with the Minister, is in charge of
running a government department or ministry. The French equivalent of a
Permanent Secrety (Permanent under secretary of state) in a
British government department. More generally, the salaried employee in
charge of the cabinet (office) of a politician or elected
term formerly used for groupings of local authorities, now
generally replaced with "communauté
language, a do-do
is a sleep or a nap. Faire
dodo means go to sleep.
the Départements d'Outre Mer, French
departments, two in the Caribbean (Guadeloupe and Martinique),
one in South America (Guyane), and one in the Indian
Ocean (La Réunion). Administratively
France, and therefore with elected representatives in the French
overseas departments benefit from many special regimes, notably fiscal
Droite, la: Generic
term used to refer to the political
right, or conservatives. French conservatism has in recent
decades been rather different from conservatism in the UK and most
other parts of Europe. Anchored in a patrician, nationalistic and
litterally ‘conservative’ mode,
France’s political right has
long had a very ambivalent attitude to economic liberalism. Following
in the tradition of General de Gaulle, who remains
the point of reference for right-wing politicians in France to this
day, la Droite, which has been in power for all but
thirteen of the last fifty years, has stressed an attachment to
existing traditions and institutions, and in so doing failed (along
with left-wing counterparts) to modernise the nation and its economy.
significantly, many French conservatives have frequently taken pains to
distance themselves from economic liberalism (See libéralisme).
As recently as 2007, Jacques Chirac wrote,
‘Liberalism will lead to the same failures and to the same
Déesse, i.e. "Goddess")
also Citroën. The top-of- the range model produced by car
Citroën from 1955 to 1975. When it first came out, the car,
revolutionary aerodynamics and air suspension, was far ahead of its
time. It was the perfect vehicle for cruising at unlimited speed on the
very poorly-surfaced main roads of fifties and sixties France. It was
said at the time that the surfaces of French main roads would never
improve, because all decision-makers rode round in DS, so
never realised how bumpy the roads were for other drivers.
Diplôme Universitaire de Technologie, a two year university
awarded to graduates of an IUT (Institut Universitaire de Technologie).
education in France
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